Orthros: A Low-Latency PRF
Keywords:Pseudorandom Function, Low Latency, Lightweight Cryptography, Sum of Permutations
We present Orthros, a 128-bit block pseudorandom function. It is designed with primary focus on latency of fully unrolled circuits. For this purpose, we adopt a parallel structure comprising two keyed permutations. The round function of each permutation is similar to Midori, a low-energy block cipher, however we thoroughly revise it to reduce latency, and introduce different rounds to significantly improve cryptographic strength in a small number of rounds. We provide a comprehensive, dedicated security analysis. For hardware implementation, Orthros achieves the lowest latency among the state-of-the-art low-latency primitives. For example, using the STM 90nm library, Orthros achieves a minimum latency of around 2.4 ns, while other constructions like PRINCE, Midori-128 and QARMA9-128- σ0 achieve 2.56 ns, 4.10 ns, 4.38 ns respectively.
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Copyright (c) 2021 Subhadeep Banik, Takanori Isobe, Fukang Liu, Kazuhiko Minematsu, Kosei Sakamoto
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.